Always click on the LEGENDARY SURFERS icon to return to this homepage. LEGENDARY SURFERS
A Definitive History of Surfing's Culture and Heroes
By  Malcolm Gault-Williams

This Chapter Updated:  12 August 2005
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Surfing After World War II

1945-1949

Doc Ball image

Aloha and welcome to this chapter of LEGENDARY SURFERS.

After World War II, as the title suggests, takes us back to the years after the Second World War, specifically the years 1945-1949.

Enjoy, spread the stoke, and -- if you have the time -- let me know how I'm doing.

Photo circa 1948, courtesy of Doc Ball and Family


Contents



"The Island kids were doing amazing things on all kinds of their finless boards, but no one ever gave them credit..."
-- Joe Quigg

"The first time I rode Makaha it was about an 8' day. One time it got big and Georgie [Downing] and them, they went out, and they came back and said, 'Hey Rabbit, try there, breaking big, the point.' So that's when we'd go. We used to ride the point a lot. Woody Brown, Wally [Froiseth], George, Henry Lum... they were what you call the regulars, and I used to tag along. And after you go there a couple of times you just get the bug."
-- Rabbit Kekai, talking about Makaha, later 1940s

"That was the only trouble with the old boards,. They were fast -- my boards were faster 'n hell -- but, oh, you couldn't turn it. I couldn't use my boards in small waves, with other guys out, cuz I'd just mow everybody down."
-- Woody Brown on the Hot Curl

"It was the late 1940s. That's when the first migration of what you call the haoles came. That was Joe Quigg, Tommy Zahn, Matt Kivlin, a guy they called Melonhead and Dave Rochlen. They were the first guys that brought down what we called the potato chip boards; the Simmons."
-- Rabbit Kekai on the Californians going Hawaiian

"The first hard-core surf guys to hit Waikiki that I knew of, consisted of Pete Peterson, Lorrin Harrision and Tom Blake who went there before the war... In the next crew were Matt Kivlin, Joe Quigg, Dave Rochlen and Tom Zahn in about 1948 and we were right after them."
-- Walter Hoffman on the Coast Haoles

"... the fellas would build a bonfire on the beach. Throw old discarded car tires [on the fire]. And they got to stink, but -- anything to keep warm!"
-- Russ Takaki, on Surfari on the Mainland, 1949



Even after World War II ended, wars and threats of war pervaded the post-war period. Civil wars raged in many areas, the Soviet Union was militarily forcing Eastern European countries to go communist, most of Asia was moving towards communism, and what came to be called "The Cold War" descended upon most of the world split between democratic and communist countries.

Highlights of the post World War II period included things like the U.S. testing atomic bombs in one of the world's most beautiful areas of the world -- the South Pacific; the supersonic breaking of the sound barrier; flying saucers were reported over the United States for the first time; the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered; Bell laboratories invented the transistor; and by 1947, more than one million war veterans had enrolled in colleges under the U.S. "G.I. Bill of Rights." Notable books published included The Diary of Anne Frank (1947), Benjamin Spock's Baby and Child Care (1946), Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire (1947), and Mickey Spillane's I, the Jury (1947).

"Zip-a-dee-doo-dah" was a popular song of the time and could be said to represent the prevailing surfer attitude. The surfer view certainly wasn't on the Cold War, but rather on riding waves and exercising personal freedom. Possibly the only noteworthy international news that surfers could relate to was Thor Heyerdahl's sailing of a raft, in 1947, from Peru to Polynesia in 101 days. It was like how Dave Rochlen put it:

"And when the war ended -- Boom -- we were back in the environment," Rochlen recalled. "It was devotion, like seeing a girl again... like, 'I'm never gonna leave!' We gave ourselves over to it entirely. I think it was because we spent four or five years in the war and we had survived. And it had all been bad. Now there was no question about what had us by the throat. It was the ocean. Everything else was secondary."

John Grissim, in his book Pure Stoke, explained with some insight that "What fueled Rochlen's, and others', great passion, was their new independence, and an unwillingness to drop back into a regimented social system. The stance was not angry, it was go-it-alone, laissez-faire, unconsciously romantic, and a bit escapist. But that life was based on a clear, clean, passionate vision that was attainable -- as were the waves. Whenever and wherever the swell was up, there was always plenty of room."
 



Hot Curls, 1940-51

In Hawai`i, use of Hot Curl surfboards had risen to the point that it was the board of choice amongst surfers wanting a piece of the big stuff. Hot Curl usage continued through the 1940s and on into the mid-1950s.

"Hot curls were difficult to get started (paddling)," George Downing remembered, "but once you got going, you'd really move along. Down the line you'd go fast. Your limitations were that once you got locked into it, you could just ease down and back up again and still maintain a lot of forward momentum. In '51 when I built my first glassed balsa with a much flatter bottom and with a skeg... the only thing it allowed me to do different was I could go for the top and trim down a lot easier, and the transition to getting back on the rail again was real quick, you had enough forward speed and you could climb back up into the hook. Whereas on the redwood hot curl board, once you'd drop, you'd have a hard time coming back up. The board just wanted to stay there."

Around the same age as George Downing, or at least in the same younger peer group than the primary Hot Curl guys -- John Kelly, Wally Froiseth, Fran Heath and Woody Brown -- was Rabbit Kekai. "Rabbit really started this style that they call hotdogging," said Californian Joe Quigg, who moved to the islands a little after the war. "In the summer, Queen's would get overhead and Rabbit would be inside of the tube hanging five with no fin and his back arched. All you would see was this flying green blur visible through the lip of the wave. He'd do it over and over again, always with precision."

"The Island kids were doing amazing things on all kinds of their finless boards, but no one ever gave them credit," underscored Quigg. "Rabbit would come flying out of the section, stomp on the tail real hard and stand the board straight up on its tail and bring it down on a different angle and then run to the nose and take off in another direction. I can remember paddling out at Makaha in point conditions and pushing up through the lip on a big set wave. Right at the top, as I'm about to punch through, I looked down and there was Georgie [Downing] standing there smiling, going faster than hell on his redwood. He was just streaking along in impossible situations and making it because of positioning and all that inertia. Downing pioneered the riding of really big, nasty waves."

"Rabbit and I traded boards one day at Queen's," continued Quigg. "Rabbit was really skinny when he was young and probably didn't weigh much at all, so I got on his board and it just sank. I could stand on it in chest-deep water and his hot curl would press to the bottom and lay right on the reef."

"We got our board's length coming down, really trimmed with four inch tails and pointed nose, and brought in to like 18 or 19 inches. They were pointers like the modern day gun, that's how we had our boards. Redwood plants with a V tail. for the big ones at Makaha, where we used to go a lot, we'd go out with the width to 20 or 20 1/2 inches. At Makaha, you'd drop in, point and go... make it through the bowl and do cutbacks and S turns on the inside. At Queen's when we used to, ya know, get the hotdog deal going, my board was like 7 or 7 1/2', sometimes up to 9'. I used to write 'Chi-Chi Bobo' on them."

Rabbit underscored that the various crews were surfing not just in the Waikiki and Makaha areas, but on the North Shore, particularly Laniakea and Paumalu (later renamed Velzyland or V-land, after Dale Velzy):

"George Downing and everybody had a surfin' safari," recalled Rabbit of one particular North Shore assault. It "started at Diamond Head right around the whole island, every surf spot you can think of. That was back in the '40s."

Rabbit added that they were even surfing Pipeline "way before" 1951. "Yeah, board surfing Pipeline. We had a family home down on PaumaLu. We used to stay out there, in like a big army barracks, you know, our family place. And in the back there was a kitchen and outside there was a bath house, it was a big property out there. During the weekends the family went out there. So during weekdays Richard Kau, Squirrely, all us guys, we buy bread, pork and beans, sausage, whatever we could afford and we stay down there in the place and we surf all the places down there. Out in front close to where we lived there, we used to surf that place every day, they call that V-land now. That's PaumaLu, the whole district by Sunset. The kids talk about V-land and I say we used to surf there, it's a left, not a right.... In those days the reef on the left made for a big, long wall, and we'd mow the left. We used to like the left because we were used to going left at Publics, and we'd get good surf, no reef problem. Now, hey you got rocks overe there on the left, look how shallow it is. It's a big, steep break goint to the right. But try to go left over there somedays, and the thing just collapse on you."

"At its apex in the mid-1940s," wrote C.R. Stecyk, "there were around thirty-five top flight practitioners of the art of hot curl surfing. Names which still inspire respect among the cognizant include: Mongo Kalahiki, Richard Kauo, Blackie Makahena, John Kelly, Jr., Rabbit Kekai, Smokey Lew, Hyah Aki, Louis Hemma, Squirrely, Fran Heath, Jonah Hemma, Snookie Whaley, George Downing, Black Dan, Eugene Kaupiko, Blackout Whaley, Wally Froiseth, Small Sam, Woody Brown, Dickie Cross... The complete absence of any surf media during the hot curl period was further compounded by the Island's remoteness and World War II, all of which served to make the movement invisible to a greater audience. Furthermore the hot curl aficionados favored restricted entry (i.e. clan controlled) surf spots and often frequented the jucier breaks which were located farther out."

"A later key participant in this crucial cross-pollination ritual," continued Stecyk, "was Tommy Zahn who arrived in Honolulu in 1947. He in turn immediately lured Joe Quigg, Dave Rochlen and Matt Kivlin to come down soon after. All were armed with provocative, finned balsa Malibu chip surfboards. These wide tailed boards were immediately suspect. Quigg remembers a recurrent phrase of the day being repeatedly uttered, 'Oh, all that balsa, what a waste.' Rabbit who personally befriended the Malibu set, rode their boards, but at that point, characterized them as 'mushers.' The varnished balsa pintail with pine center stringer sported by Quigg employed a dead flat bottom, 50/50 rails and a turned down hard rail in the tail. On his way back to the mainland aboard the S.S. Lurline, Joe decided to cut the center out of his pintail and reattach the rails, thus making a narrower board. Kivlin and Quigg returned to Malibu where they reported the virtues of finless hot curl sliding to a skeptical public. The 1948 arrival on the mainland of Downing, Froiseth and Russ Takaki demonstrated to many doubters the viability of the finless, hot curl surfing. It was on this trip that the Hawaiians met Bob Simmons who introduced them to his concepts of composite material construction using foam, wood and fiberglass. In '49, Quigg returned to the Islands with his pared down balsa quiver. Additionally he personally investigated hot curl theory while building a couple of boards for himself in Wally's shop. Kivlin and Rochlen were also in and out of the scene with Dave hooking up an occasional old redwood plank which could be reshaped by himself, Matt or whoever, into a suitable hot curl.

"Back on the coast, Quigg built a couple of demonstrator hot curls around 1949/50, 'just to prove the point.' One Kivlin project from this period, a redwood replica of Rabbit's board was an absolute sinker. Joe remembers it as being 'unpaddleable... at least for us.' This board was then recycled into a trophy -- hence the birth of the 'Malibu Perpetual Surfboard.' Around '51, Kivlin gave Rabbit a sleek, pulled-in, red colored, finned, balsa chipper which he had originally built for his wife. Kekai rode this board for several years winning both at Makaha and Peru. During this same period, Downing incorporated his high-speed, hot curl theories into a finned, fiberglassed balsa gun. For this board he created an experimental removable fin unit which allowed him to test fin shapes and placement. Wally Froiseth went on to become one of the pioneers of the surfing industry in Hawai`i, creating guns as well as a series of innovative paipo boards under his Surf Shop Hawaii label."
 
 

The Search for Big Surf & the Move to Makaha

As long as there's been surfing, there's been the quest for the longest ride and the biggest wave. Although we don't know much about pre-European contact Polynesia, we do know that in mid-1800s Hawai`i, Chief Abner Paki rode only when the swells were larger than normal. "The Father of Modern Surfing" Duke Kahanamoku, shortly after 1900, was riding huge honkers off Waikiki. Later, Tom Blake and others would do the same. That said, however, the quest for big surf and nothing but big surf really began with the birth of the Hot Curl surfboard in 1938 and progressed from there.

A half decade after the development of the Hot Curl, Dickie Cross' death and Woody Brown's near demise while surfing Sunset and trying to get in at Waimea, on the North Shore of O`ahu, was like a shock wave throughout the small community of island surfers riding big waves. For the first time, a surfer was lost during obvious big surf and swell conditions. There was a point that could be reached where what once had been a rideable wave was no longer. Or, still, could big Waimea be ridden? What was the biggest wave that could be ridden? No one knew for sure. In fact, we still don't know. But, following Dickie Cross' death at Waimea on December 22, 1943, one thing was for sure: the North Shore of O`ahu became like voodoo.

After the North Shore of O`ahu became hexed, "with Wally and them, we went to Makaha," on the west side, recalled Woody Brown. "We found that place there and that was better. It had big waves -- 25 feet -- but, they were out on a point. Makaha had a nice wall across the bay and a nice shoulder you could make all the way across. It even had a channel to go in and out. So, you can't beat that. The shore break was awful. Oh, God! The shore break was so bad, 8-10 feet on the bare sand! You just threw your board away and swam in. You weren't about to go in with your board, you know?"

I asked Woody when the actual gravitation to Makaha took place. "Oh, after that episode with Dickie Cross over there on the other side of the island," Woody replied. "Wally and them said, 'Well, there's a good place at Makaha. Come on, we'll go over there.' So, we went over there. That's when we started surfing there. They had surfed there a couple of times. At least they knew about it. That was good surf; that was really good."

During the war, Woody became part of the first group of surfers to actively seek big waves wherever they might be. This group included Hot Curl riders Wally Froiseth, John Kelly, Fran Heath, Doug Forbes and a little later Russ Takaki, and George Downing.

"You see, in those days, you didn't have the numbers of surfers you have today," Fran Heath told me. The small group of Hot Curlers, who had been driven to improve their boards for riding big surf, slowly began to look outside their realm of Honolulu for surf spots that would challenge them further -- unknown places. "The idea, then," Fran summed up, "was to get the biggest wave you could; to get in the curl; to get in the tube."

They had first started surfing Makaha around 1938, shortly after the first Hot Curl was cut. Yet, it wasn't until after the war that they got into it in a big way.

"We started going to Makaha all the time," Fran remembered. "We'd try to bring other guys out with us, but one of three things would happen. If the surf was good, they might go out with us and have a helluva hard time out there. If it was really good, they'd usually end up sitting on the beach. Of course, if it was flat, they'd give us a hard time about our 'exaggerations.'"

For pilot, sailor and surfer Woody Brown, Makaha "was a better surf than the North Shore. We had nice, long lines! Again, it broke out on that point. There's a peak, see, and then you could slide all the way across the bay.

"I've seen 25 feet, there, and you could make every damn one! In fact, we were making every one. We kept moving more over to the point, more in the bone yard. We kept moving over and still we were making 'em! Move further; still make 'em! And, move waay 'till we were way out in front of that point and: still make 'em across!

"And I've seen other days when you couldn't make one, no matter where you sat. It all depends on the angle the waves come in; how they hit the shallow water. That determines the shape of it, mostly. Size is up or down. Naturally, if it's in further, the shape of the reef's different than it is out, but mostly it's the angle they come in at."

I asked Woody about the North Shore. How long after Dickie Cross' death was it that people began to surf there again? "Oh, a long, long time. Nobody surfed there for another 5, maybe 8, 10 years," Woody answered.

"We went Makaha, see. Everybody went Makaha, first. Then, the guys started going the North Shore. Then, there was Makaha and the North Shore. But, Makaha was first."

"The first time I rode Makaha it was about an 8' day," recalled Rabbit Kekai. "One time it got big and Georgie [Downing] and them, they went out, and they came back and said, 'Hey Rabbit, try there, breaking big, the point.' So that's when we'd go. We used to ride the point a lot. Woody Brown, Wally [Froiseth], George, Henry Lum... they were what you call the regulars, and I used to tag along. And after you go there a couple of times you just get the bug."

Rabbit Kekai was asked who of the moderns it was to ride the North Shore and he answered, "Nobody used to go out there. Then the town guys started to go. The pioneers I would say would be George Downing, Wally [Froiseth], Henry Lum, Woody Brown..."

The difference between the Hot Curls and the redwood/balsa planks that preceded them was, according to Rabbit Kekai, "A plank was mostly for down the wall -- straight. Like at Cunha's [off Waikiki] we had what we'd call a ten second curl where [with a Hot Curl] we'd go a hundred yards in and a thousand yards across. We had it set up with buoys. So your time would tell you what kinda speed." This was around 1948-49 and the speed was between 30 and 40 mph. "We'd shoot across the whole wall like that and come out smiling," added Rabbit.

In the late 1940s, the crew at Makaha was accompanied by a slowly growing number of Mainland haoles. "Makaha point surf... [was] the ultimate challenge," for Hot Curl riders and non-Hot Curlers, attested Peter Cole who came after the initial crew at Makaha, in the 1950s. "When these waves wrap around Kaena Point from the north, they reach their peak in the bowl and are nearly impossible to make."

"Woody Brown... He was a big wave rider only!" Recalled Walter Hoffman, who came over in 1948. "The biggest wave I ever saw ridden was by him at Makaha in the early days. God, that wave was fabulous! He... lived right above the Tavern with his wife Ma Brown -- to this day a really neat guy, a real gentleman."

As for another Makaha regular, Henry Lum, recalled Woody, he "was such a "skinny Chinaman and so frail; couldn't have weighed more'n a hundred pounds. He'd go out in those big waves. Boy, he was so weak and skinny, you know. Wally and I said, 'Well, I guess we're not gonna see Henry again.' Twenty foot waves! He convinced us he wanted to go out. He could surf alright, but, you know, he was so frail! But, he always seemed to live through it. We rescued him acoupla times. In the white water you get exhausted, eh? But, he did alright. He kept going. I give him credit, boy; a lot of guts, that guy."
 
 

George Downing's Slot Board

Importantly, skegs had finally caught on, "allowing surfboards to be much shorter and lighter." I mentioned to Woody that it seemed like it took a long time for the skeg to catch on. "Yeah," he admitted. "In fact, I didn't want a skeg. I rebelled against it. We had shaped boards so they wouldn't slide ass, you know. And I said, 'What the hell do you want a skeg for?'

"'Oh,' they said, 'It makes it better.' So, I rode a board with a skeg on it and it didn't seem to make a difference. So, then George Downing and I made a super board for big waves at Makaha. We had learned to flatten out the rumps a bit. See, you have to have a V. If you don't have a skeg, you gotta have a V or a round tail and then it won't slide ass. That holds it. But, the shallower you make the V, the faster it is! The trouble is, you flatten the V, then it gets loose and then it wants to slide ass.

"So, we made one with a pretty flat back end, with little curves on the sides. And so Georgie said, 'I'll make a slot, so we can put a skeg in or take it out. We can try it and see the difference.' So, we went Makaha. They were about 15 foot peaks that day. He went out there without the skeg, first, and he rode it. It rode beautiful; fine. Oh, just no trouble at all. Georgie came in and said, 'Well, let's put the skeg in and just try it, anyway. See the difference. See what it's about.' So, he puts the skeg in and went back out.

"It looked like he was riding the same, but he came back in and said, 'Hey, Woody, it's much better with a skeg.' So, from that point on, he started putting skegs on 'em. I asked, 'How is it better?' He said, 'Well, it's not any faster, but it's more solid and you can turn it real easy with a skeg,' which we couldn't do before. Our boards were real stiff turning."

"That was the only trouble with the old boards," Woody continued. "They were fast -- my boards were faster 'n hell -- but, oh, you couldn't turn it. I couldn't use my boards in small waves, with other guys out, cuz I'd just mow everybody down. Once I set it in at just kind of an angle like that, I couldn't turn. All I could do was drop down or climb up a little bit. But, as far as turning, I couldn't turn it. So, you couldn't ride small waves with it. But, it had the speed on the big waves! Man, I could get across where nobody could get across! Which sounds right. Nobody wants to get caught in 20 feet of white water."

While at Makaha, George Downing developed a patent dismount. "George's technique of bailing off the tail of the board," commented Peter Cole, "diminished any chance of being hit by the board."
 
 

The Waikiki Surf Club, 1947

No two ways about it, World War II had interrupted the lives of most everyone in the "civilized" world and, in the case of surfing, put a lot of things on hold. Following the war, however, there was resurgent interest in and some changes in how surfing was organized in its traditional early 20th Century capitol, Waikiki.

By the end of 1946, the two main original Waikiki surf clubs had changed considerably. The native Hui Nalu had limited its activities mostly to outrigger canoe racing. The haole-influenced Outrigger Canoe Club had become more of an exclusive prestige-type establishment, "with a wide range of social and athletic interests." So, in 1947, the Waikiki Surf Club was formed for the same reasons that the other two had originally been put together. "Its purpose," wrote surfing historian Ben Finney, "was to promote surfing as well as other Hawaiian water sports. It provided board lockers and clothes changing facilities near the beach, for anyone who could pay the small initiation fee and monthly dues."

It was obvious that the Waikiki Surf Club filled a void, when, under the leadership of John Lind, it enrolled 600 members in three months -- some of whom were California surfers that were just starting to come over to the Islands. "We had [island local] members like George Downing, Wally Froiseth, Russ Takaki," recalled relocated California surfer Walter Hoffman. "The Outrigger was down the beach, at $200 per month -- a rich guy's club, very exclusive, you had to be voted in. Our club was for the regular guys who surfed, so it was a great place to meet everybody -- where all the transplant Californians hung out."

"The club was downstairs in the basement of this house... and consisted of some lockers, showers and a place to leave your board." A local guy named Taka was club attendant around the time Walt Hoffman and Ted Crane first came over in 1948.

The Waikiki Surf Club was followed by other newer clubs and the ongoing health of the older ones, but much of the post-war growth of surfing at Waikiki was, undoubtedly, due to the existence of the Waikiki Surf Club. The club did more than just provide a place for surfers to hang and keep their gear close to the beach. The club also initiated and sponsored several surfing and watermen events that stimulated public interest and fostered competition. Among these were: the Diamond Head Surfboard Championships, the Molokai-Oahu Outrigger Canoe Race, the Makapu Bodysurfing Championships, and what was to become famous as not only the first big wave surfing contest, but the first truly international surf contest: the International Surfing Championships at Makaha.
 
 

Waikiki Tavern

Another important gathering place for O`ahu surfers "was the Waikiki Tavern," recalled Walter Hoffman, "-- watering hole, hangout and 'cultural center' for the transplant surfers from California."

These "transplants," or "coast haoles," increased in number in the late 1940s. Tommy Zahn kicked it off, in 1947, bringing Joe Quigg, Matt Kivlin and Dave Rochlen over on his glowing reports of the surf. These were followed by Walt Hoffman and Ted Crane, in 1948.

The Tavern's hey day as surfer sanctuary spanned, perhaps, no more than the decade of the 1940s. Certainly, by the beginning of the 1950s, the Tavern was history. Rabbit Kekai said that, "when the Tavern went, everything went. They had a bar they called the Merry-go-round Bar. It was like a boxing ring, fights every night. The Waikiki Surf Club was upstairs and next to that was Woody Brown's house. They tore it all out at the same time and left flat beach, that's where the Duke statue now stands."

Woody Brown, his second wife Rachel -- aka "Ma Brown" -- and their two kids "lived over the Waikiki Tavern," continued Rabbit. "The Waikiki Surf Club was down on the side, where Woody, Wally, myself, John Linn were charter members, everybody was there. So, he [Woody] used to stay up there and he used to take care of us kids, my brother Jamma and I. In certain ways we took care of him and in certain ways he and Maw took care of us."
 
 

3rd Wave of Coast Haoles, 1947-48 -- Zahn, Quigg, Kivlin & Rochlen

If we consider people like Tom Blake and Sam Reid being the "first wave" of mainland surfers to come to Hawai`i, during the 1920s; and if we consider Preston "Pete" Peterson, Lorrin "Whitey" Harrison, Gene "Tarzan" Smith and their peers being in the "second wave," during the 1930s; then the "third wave" of Californians to surf Hawaiian waters was comprised of the likes of Joe Quigg, Tommy Zahn, Matt Kivlin, Melonhead (Porter Vaughn) and Dave Rochlen in the late 1940s.

"It was the late 1940s," remembered Rabbit Kekai. "That's when the first migration of what you call the haoles came. That was Joe Quigg, Tommy Zahn, Matt Kivlin, a guy they called Melonhead and Dave Rochlen. They were the first guys that brought down what we called the potato chip boards; the Simmons."

Revolutionizing surfboard design back on the Mainland in the period after the war, Bob Simmons was the man and his boards were thee machines. Quigg and Kivlin were associated with him and so it was natural that they were riding his designs. Both Quigg and Kivlin were shapers, themselves, and Quigg went on to become one of the greatest surfboard shapers in history. He and Kivlin and the others would be largely responsible for the emergence of the "Malibu board," which popularized the sport throughout the 1950s. But, at war's end and the beginning of the closing of what Churchill, in 1946, labelled the "Iron Curtain," Quigg and Kivlin were still the apprentices, while Simmons was the master.

"We were amazed to see them on those boards," continued Rabbit, "they were just standing at the back end on them because they had those wide tails with just one skeg in the center or concave tails with twin fins. Rochlen and Quigg had twin fins. Kivlin had one of his own single finned boards with a narrower tail."

Rabbit was asked if the Hawaiians quit using the Hot Curls in favor of the Simmons boards. "No," he replied. "We still used our own boards, but we tried those potato chip boards, and... my opinion was... they were mushers. Yeah. That's what the Simmons were. They had concaves or were wide and flat in the back, with big bellies and kick in the nose. We tried 'em, but they were mushers... good for doing slow turns and maneuvers. But... (chuckling) no speed."

A major factor in surfing's post-war growth was this migration to Hawai`i of hard-core surfers from California. The previous two waves of mainland surfer migrations to Hawai`i, prior to the war, had been mild compared to this third. And the third was small compared to subsequent waves that occurred following the distribution of the first big wave photograph over international press services in 1953. Once the mid-to-late 1940s Californians, "rode the great north swell at Makaha, northwest of Waikiki," wrote Ben Finney in 1960, "the rush from California really began. Since 1949 many Californians, as if proving Jack London's prophesy, have taken up permanent residence in Hawaii, to be on hand when the surf is running. Many others make the 25000-mile trip annually to spend a month or so riding the towering fall and winter waves on Oahu's north shore. This flow of Californians bringing new board designs and fresh riding techniques made a terrific impact on the Hawaiian sport. After the war, in fact, Hawaiian surfing was spurred by the combination of its enthusiastic internal growth with this stimulus from its nearest continental neighbor."

The reality was even more Spartan. "I befriended Matt and Rochlen," told Rabbit. "Then we got to know the rest of the guys and hang around together. A lot of times you wouldn't believe it. No money. They'd come around shoe string, like with about 25 dollars apiece. For housing, they rented a garage from Dickie Cross. I think it was like ten dollars a month. This was Matt Kivlin, Melon, Joe Quigg, Dave Rochlen, Tom Zahn. They built bunks out of 2" X 4"s and kept their boards under their bunks and that's where they lived, in that one little garage."
 
 

Island Surf Lifestyles

Funding schemes varied by surfer, but most all revolved around the beach. "In those days," recalled Rabbit Kekai, "I had the board rental. How I got it was this man had put on an aquacades show at the Natatorium and they had painted all the surfboards florescent and after the show the guy was stuck with these twelve boards. So he wanted to sell 'em and nobody had money but I had bucks then because I was... (Rabbit makes a dice throwing motion)... so I told him, 'OK, a hundred bucks,' and he said, 'Sold!' So I put them down at the banyan tree and we used to rent 'em for like a dollar an hour. And I used to get bucks, boy. Quigg and the guys, if they'd like a dollar to go eat, I'd tell 'em, 'Rent three boards, gimme two, you take one.' Matt Kivlin and those guys they'd just make the bucks enough to eat and that's it. I used to live high on the hog off those boards though. I told everybody, 'You need a dollar to go movie or somethin' to eat, you know, rent three boards.' We had a good trick in those days. [The rental] Boards were hollow and we used to put corks in the drain holes. We used to tell 'em when they'd rent the board, 'Don't lose that cork or water will fill it up.' And they'd say, 'Oh, OK.' And when you'd push 'em out, you'd shove the damn thing and pull the cork out (laughing). And they'd paddle out but come right back in cause the board was so heavy. Shave the time. That's how we'd do it."

The lifestyles were equally colorful. Again, Rabbit provides a somewhat less than honest example. "I used to rent a place down by where Sonny Cunha lived, and on weekends I'd have about 15-16 guys all over the floor. Sometimes I'd come home and couldn't find room on my bed. They'd sleep on top, under, on the floor, in the closet, in the bathroom, in the bathtub, all over. So I'd go over to my friends place and sleep there. My take off each day was about $70 or $80 [from the surfboard rental business] and I'd take about $20 and take all the guys I could to the Tavern for the $1.25 all-you-can-eat. And the other guys that don't have any money they'd sit on the outside and we'd fill up da plate and pass 'em over the wall. Ahhh, we had fun."
 
 

Fourth Wave, 1948 -- Hoffman, Crane, et. al

Walter Hoffman and his friends comprised the next wave of Coast haoles to come to O`ahu, after Zahn, Quigg, Kivlin and Rochlin.

Hoffman had started surfing Malibu in 1946 when he was going to school at Hollywood High. "Walt's father," wrote Steve Pezman in The Surfer's Journal, "was in the printed fabric business, was selling to George Brangier and Nat Norfleet Sr. of Kahala (one of the original Hawaiian aloha shirt makers), who sent surfing pictures of Hawaii to young Walter. Also stimulating Walt's interest in Hawaii were early conversations with Lorrin Harrison at San Onofre who had gone there in the '30s to surf."

"The first hard-core surf guys to hit Waikiki," from the Mainland, declared Hoffman, "that I knew of, consisted of Pete Peterson, Lorrin Harrision and Tom Blake who went there before the war... In the next crew were Matt Kivlin, Joe Quigg, Dave Rochlen and Tom Zahn in about 1948 and we were right after them."

Hoffman and crew became, in essence, the Fourth Wave of Coast haoles to go Hawaiian in 1948. Walter Hoffman and Ted Crane arrived in Waikiki in the Summer of 1948, having come across on the S.S. Lureline.

"Waikiki was about the only place anybody surfed in the islands at the time," told Hoffman. "The day we got off the boat the surf was first break. Huge! George Downing took us out to outside Public's."

Hoffman would return to O`ahu each summer until he enlisted in the Navy and then stationed in Hawai`i.

"Over the years during the summer months," Walter Hoffman wrote of the period 1948-49, "I rented different houses all over Waikiki and lived with different guys -- had great times and adventures with them all."

Recalling one of the big events of 1949, Walter Hoffman said the 4th of July paddle race that year, "was one of the big confrontations in George Downing's life! 'Big Jimmy' had been the paddling king of Waikiki until young George beat him in a sprint from the Outrigger Canoe Club to down the beach in front of the Waikiki Tavern. Big Jimmy refused to accept that George was faster, claiming that it was the equipment -- that George had used a faster board. So Downing offered to switch boards and go again. According to George, on that second race he stayed close behind Big Jimmy on his left flank -- then moved to his right, then passed him at the finish line. After that race, Big Jimmy reportedly quit paddling."

Hanging out with Walt Hoffman and friends at the Waikiki Surf Club in those days was Kui Lee, Reno Abellira's uncle. Kui Lee, "was a young renegade kid who later became a famous song writer ('I Remember You,' 'One Paddle, Two Paddle')," recalled Walter, "but at the time just a kid who would surf with us and sang and played Hawaiian music with Chubby Mitchell. He died at a young age from cancer and became a legend bigger than life."

"When I first got to the islands," Hoffman recalled, "I heard about Makaha. So I started going out there in the winter and found out that, shit man, the place got really big. Dave Mojas and myself were the first two California guys really actively surfing it three to four times a week for the entire winter. That was the year I took movies (which I still have). I also sent still pictures to Flippy (brother Phillip) and Buzzy telling them to get over here -- it's bitchin. And Burrhead saw those and all those guys came the next year for the winter, ans we camped on the beach at Makaha. From then on for the next few years we would rent houses near Makaha for the winter and in Waikiki during the summertime."
 
 

Hot Curlers Surfari California, 1949

The second summer Hoffman and crew rented digs in Waikiki, Wally Froiseth and friends turned the travelling tide by making a sailing surfari to the Mainland. In a sort of surfer mutual exchange, on August 9, 1949 Wally Froiseth, George Downing and Russ Takaki took an historic surf safari to the Mainland, where, as Wally put it, "We made kind of a sensation with our boards."

The Hawaiians arrived by sailboat, crewing from O`ahu to San Diego, then bought a Model A Ford and surf safaried between Windansea, and Santa Cruz.

"Wally, George Downing and myself," took the trip, explained Russ Takaki, "and there was two other guys and the skipper and a cook.

"We didn't sail back. I didn't have that long of a vacation. It took 15 days to sail out to San Diego and then we -- ah, um -- we had our sleeping bags and we bummed up and down the coast a couple of weeks, maybe more. Then, we had to fly back."

Stopping at Malibu, the three renewed friendships with watermen Pete Peterson, Matt Kivlin, Dave Rochlen, Buzzy Trent and others. While there, the waves were unseasonably small and the water colder than usual. Pidgin parlance summed it up: "It no wave sho 'so no can go." Russ, in his modest manner, not wanting to put the Coast waves down, merely described: "Fair surf at Windansea and a little bit at Malibu."

"Just imagine," Russ shifted from waves to water. "When Wally, Geo'ge Downing and I sailed dat yacht to San Diego, we never had any wet suits. Nobody had wet suits. At that time. And, you know, with our redwood boards -- you know, they didn't float that high [off the surface of the water]. But, when you're young, you know, you don't mind that much. Never freezing, but we got to shivering.

"... the fellas would build a bonfire on the beach. Throw old discarded car tires [on the fire]. And they got to stink, but -- anything to keep warm!"

Wally Froiseth has a number of classic photographs taken of this trip, that can be seen in Nat Young's History of Surfing. I asked Russ about some of the other surfers I saw in Wally's photos.

"We got off [the yacht] and got to know all the guys who surfed," Russ said about who the Hawaiians hung out with. "After all, we slept on the beach."

"You could do that in those days," I said.

"Yeah, those days nobody bothered [you]."

"Several of the California surfers," Russ added, "would trace our boards on large sheets of paper and did a fair job of imitating our boards."

Adding to Russ' recollections of the Mainland trip, Wally Froiseth mentioned they had gotten to see surfing's first photographer Doc Ball and that they stirred up a lot of interest among California surfers to go Hawaiian.

"Yeah, well, see, after we made this trip to the Coast," Wally told me, "guys started comin' down, little by little; send pictures back and go back with stories of their own. At one point, I got a letter from [Pete] Peterson. He writes me, telling me, 'Hey, Wallace, this guy here says you guys are out surfing Barber's Point in 60-foot waves -- that right?'"

ENDIT



Some sources used:

  • Ben Finney
  • Bob Simmons
  • California Surfers
  • Dale Velzy
  • Dave Mojas
  • Dave Rochlen
  • Doc Ball
  • Dorian "Doc" Paskowitz
  • Duke Kahanamoku
  • Flippy Hoffman
  • Fran Heath
  • George Downing
  • History of Surfing
  • Joe Quigg
  • John Grissim
  • John Kelly
  • John Lind
  • Lorrin "Whitey" Harrison
  • Matt Kivlin
  • Porter Vaughn (Melonhead)
  • Nat Young
  • Peter Cole
  • Phil Edwards
  • Preston "Pete" Peterson
  • Pure Stoke
  • Rabbit Kekai,
  • Russ Takaki
  • Steve Pezman
  • Ted Crane
  • The Longboard Quarterly
  • The Surfer's Journal
  • Tom Blake
  • Tommy Zahn
  • Wally Froiseth
  • Walter Hoffman
  • Woody Brown

  • Related Resources




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